Tuesday, November 30, 2010

High Intensity Energy Efficient LED Light

Here is a rechargeable LED lamp that gives you bright light for a long duration of time as it consumes little power. The circuit presented here is compact, automatic, reliable, low-cost and easy to assemble.

The circuit comprises power supply, battery charging and switching sections. The power supply section takes power from 230V AC mains supply without using a transformer. Capacitor C1 is used as an AC voltage dropper, a well-known transformerless solution. This helps to make the circuit compact without generating heat, as capacitor C1 dissipates negligible power. Capacitor C1 also protects against fluctuations in mains.
Current required for the battery charging circuit is provided by capacitor C1. Capacitor C1 discharges through resistor R1 when the circuit is disconnected from the mains voltage. This helps to prevent a fatal shock due to any voltage remaining in the input terminals. Capacitor C1 must be rated at least 440V AC, with mains application class X2.

The AC mains voltage after capacitor C1 is given to bridge rectifier diodes D1 through D4 to convert alternating current into direct current and filtered by capacitor C2. The voltage from point B+ is given to positive terminal of the battery (BATT), anodes of LEDs (LED2 through LED21) and transistor base-bias resistor R3 through slide switch S1. The circuit is operated in three modes (AC/charge, off and batt) by using three-position switch S1.

When switch S1 is in middle position, the circuit is off. When S1 is towards right, white LEDs glow by drawing power from 4V battery. When S1 is towards left, the circuit connects to AC mains and battery starts charging. The presence of AC mains voltage and battery charging is indicated by LED1. White LEDs remain off if AC mains supply is available and glow in the absence of AC mains.

When switch S1 is towards left position and AC mains is available, the battery charges through diode D6 and the white LEDs don’t glow. The negative DC path through diode D5 makes the transistor cut-off, preventing the battery current from LEDs to the negative terminal through the transistor. Thus the white LEDs don’t glow.

On the other hand, if AC mains is not available, charging stops and the base of transistor SS8050 gets positive voltage from the battery through slide switch S1 and resistor R3. The transistor conducts and the current flows from the battery’s positive terminal to the negative terminal of the battery through the
LEDs (LED2 through LED21), collector to emitter of transistor T1 and switch S1. Thus the white LEDs glow.

When the switch is in ‘batt’ position, the white LEDs (LED2 through LED21) get the supply directly from 4V battery through switch S1 and therefore all the white LEDs glow.

Assemble the circuit on a general purpose PCB and enclose in a suitable cabinet. Fix the mains power cord on the back of the cabinet and slide switch
and LEDs on the front side.

LED Lamp
Component Required:
R1,                   470K ohm
R2,                   270 ohm
R3,R4,              470 ohm
C1,                   1uF / 440V Maylar
C2,                   220uF/ 16V electrolyte
D1-D6,              1N4007
T1,                   SS8050
S1,                   Sliding switch
LED1,                Red LED
LED2-LED21,      Bright white LEDs
BATT,                4V, 0.8AH


  1. what is the range of led that should be used?

  2. Can you place pcb diagram here.

  3. I don't have pcb. I made this on veroboard.

  4. wahaj87 at rate of yahoo dot comMarch 19, 2011 at 4:48 PM

    Thanks for reply. I will try to put PCB here, if it worked correctly. Do tell me the way to put picture here.
    Also tell me when the switch S1 is in charging position if the load ( Light LEDs in this case, suppose they are fused) is not there, then the electrolyte capacitor 220uf/16v will blow off due to charge or not?

  5. Interesting!!! Why not check by yourself????

    I don't think so, because at i/p there is capacitive resistance, so voltage should not exceed.

    Or you can use 50v cap.
    Test it and let me know.

  6. wahaj87(at rate of )yahoo dot com
    I have tested the c2. To make save, not to blow while no load, solution is to use 220uf/100v capacitor instead of 25v or 50v. Hope this help to others.