Tuesday, March 13, 2012

Universal Remote Control Receiver

The circuit diagram shown in Fig.1 uses a PNA4602M IR detector to receive an IR signal from  the remote control. It’s a neat device, which contains an IR receiver, amplifier and demodulator together in a single 3-pin package, and it’s normally used in circuits where you want to decode an IR remote control signal. 

The way the circuit (Fig.1) works is as follows. When there is no IR coded signal present, the output pin of IC1 remains high. This high signal is fed to the trigger input of the 555 timer (IC2), which being configured as a monostable timer, prevents the timer operating. 

Whenever you briefly press any key on the old remote control its IR signal is received by IC1 and output pin 1 produces a train of fast moving high and low pulses, which mimic the IR signal code sent by the remote control. We are not interested in this code, but as soon as the signal switches low it triggers the monostable timer IC2 and its output pin 3 goes high for a short period of time, set by resistor R2 and capacitor C2.

Sunday, March 4, 2012

LDR Based Water Pump Controller

Here is a simple solution for automatic pumping of water to the overhead tank. Unlike other water-level indicators, it does not use probes to detect the water level and hence there is no probe corrosion problem. It has no direct contact with water, so the chance of accidental leakage of electricity to the water tank is also eliminated.

sensor assembly
Two important advantages of the circuit are that the water level never goes below a particular level and no modification in the water tank is required. Fig. 1 shows the circuit of the water pump controller. The circuit uses an LDR-white LEDs assembly to sense the water level. It forms a triggering switch to energise the relay for controlling the pump. The LDR-LEDs assembly (shown in Fig. 2) is fixed on the inner side of the cap of the water tank without making contact with water. The light reflected from the water tank is used to control the resistance of LDR1.